Am J Cancer Res 2012;2(4):434-445

Review Article
Androgen receptor as a targeted therapy for breast cancer

Joseph P Garay, Ben H Park

The Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore; The Whiting
School of Engineering, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD,

Received April 25, 2012; accepted May 15, 2012; Epub June 28, 2012; Published July 15, 2012

Abstract: Breast cancer occurs at a high frequency in women and, given this fact, a primary focus of breast cancer research has
been the study of estrogen receptor α (ER) signaling. However, androgens are known to play a role in normal breast physiology
and therefore androgen receptor (AR) signaling is becoming increasingly recognized as an important contributor towards breast
carcinogenesis. Moreover, the high frequency of AR expression in breast cancer makes it an attractive therapeutic target, but the
ability to exploit AR for therapy has been difficult. Here we review the historical use of androgen/anti-androgen therapies in breast
cancer, the challenges of accurately modeling nuclear hormone receptor signaling in vitro, and the presence and prognostic
significance of AR in breast cancer.

Keywords: Androgen receptor, MAP kinase, breast cancer, p21, androgens

Address all correspondence to:
Dr. Ben H Park
Department of Oncology
The Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center
The Johns Hopkins University
1650 Orleans Street, Room 151
Baltimore, MD, 21231, USA.
Tel: 410-502-7399; FAX: 410-614-4073
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American Journal of Cancer Research
ISSN: 2156-6976